Activated Gold Nanoparticle Conjugation Kits
Cytodiagnostics functionalized and PEGylated highly concentrated gold nanoparticles have the same narrow size distribution as our non-functionalized particles but carry functional groups on the surface. A variety of surface modifications are available, i.e. passive protein adsorption, NHS-ester, maleimide, Ni-NTA, azide, carboxyl, amine, methyl (methoxy), biotin, click chemistry and our proprietary OligoREADY and AptamerREADY surface coating.
The classic passive adsorption strategy utilizes the property of non-functionalized (e.g. citrate coated) standard gold nanoparticles to readily bind proteins when the pH of the solution is at or close to the isoelectric point of the protein to be conjugated. This binding is "non-specific” and is governed by ionic, van der Waals, and hydrophobic forces. Although fairly straightforward, this strategy has several drawbacks such as desorption of the conjugated protein over time, and in some cases, partial denaturation or disturbances to the tertiary protein structure which can impact the gold conjugate functionality.
Our methyl gold nanoparticles are substantially more inert than non-functionalized gold nanoparticles and do not readily adsorb proteins. This makes them ideal for applications where reduced protein binding is desirable and for use as a control particle.
Our NHS-activated gold nanoparticles and Maleimide-activated gold nanoparticles are supplied in convenient one-step conjugation kit formats. No activation of the gold nanoparticles are required. Simply mix with your protein of interest to generate a functional gold conjugate.
Our carboxyl gold nanoparticles are suitable for covalent conjugation of proteins, and our amine functional gold for conjugation of DNA, proteins and other ligands using standard EDC/NHS conjugation chemistry.
In addition to our passive and covalent conjugation kits for proteins we are also proud to offer our unique OligoREADY™ gold nanoparticle conjugation kits and AptamerREADY™ gold nanoparticle conjugation kits. These kits allow for conjugation of thiol-modified oligonucleotides and aptamers to gold nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 5nm-100nm.
Our Alkyne, Azide, and DBCO gold nanoparticles are designed to take advantage of "click-chemistries" to offer high-yielding, chemoselective linkage between our gold nanoparticles and your molecule of choice.
Lastly, to allow you to choose the most appropriate surface functionality for your specific application we also offer the choice between two different lengths of PEG spacers between the functional group and the gold surface. This allows optimization of linker length between the functional group and the gold nanoparticle surface for your particular application.
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