Activated Gold NanoUrchin Conjugation Kits
Cytodiagnostics funciotnalized and PEGylated highly concentrated gold NanoUrchins have the same narrow size distribution as our non-functionalized particles but carry functional groups on the surface. A variety of surface modifications are available, i.e., passive protein adsorption, NHS-ester, maleimide, carboxyl, methyl (methoxy), biotin, and our proprietary OligoREADY and AptamerREADY surface coating.
The classic passive adsorption strategy utilizes the property of non-functionalized (e.g. citrate coated) gold NanoUrchins to readily bind proteins when the pH of the solution is at or close to the isoelectric point of the protein to be conjugated. This binding is "non-specific" and is governed by ionic, van der Waals, and hydrophobic forces. Although fairly straightforward, this strategy has several drawbacks such as desorption of the conjugated protein over time, and in some cases, partial denaturation or disturbances to the tertiary protein structure which can impact the NanoUrchin conjugate functionality.
Our methyl gold NanoUrchins are substantially more inert than non-functionalized gold NanoUrchins and do not readily adsorb proteins. This makes them ideal for applications where reduced protein binding is desirable and for use as a control particle.
Our NHS-activated gold NanoUrchins and Maleimide-activated gold NanoUrchins are supplied in convenient one-step conjugation kit formats. No activation of the gold NanoUrchins is required. Simply mix your protein of internet to generate a functional NanoUrchin conjugate.
Our carboxyl gold NanoUrchins are suitable for covalent conjugation of proteins using standard EDC/NHS coupling for a more stable and robust final NanoUrchin conjugate.
In addition to our passive and covalent conjugation kits for proteins we are also proud to offer our unique OligoREADY™ gold NanoUrchin conjugation kits and AptamerREADY™ NanoUrchin conjugation kits. These kits allow for conjugation of thiol-modified oligonucleotides and aptamers to gold NanoUrchins with diameters in the range of 50nm-100nm.
Lastly, to allow you to choose the most appropriate surface functionality for your specific application we also offer the choice between two different lengths of PEG spacers between the functional group and the gold surface. This allows optimization of linker length between the functional group and the gold nanoparticle surface for your particular application.
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